Find Out More About What is Artificial Intelligence (AI) So You Can Make the Right Choice in Choosing a Course that Has High Job Demand & Salary
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We are surrounded by Artificial Intelligence (AI) and we often use it without realizing. Every time you ask Siri or Bixby to do a task, use a Tiktok filter, have junk mail filtered from your inbox, or get a traffic update on Waze, AI is at work.
Basically, Artificial intelligence is the use of a program, or algorithm, to perform a task which requires humans to use our intelligence. Just as we use our brains to learn from new information gathered by our senses, AI learns from information fed to it—either many examples of an image, say, or the rules of a game—and processed according to how it is programmed. When AI is programmed to follow an algorithm, it is called machine learning. AI can handle massive amounts of data that our brains simply cannot cope with.
We are in the era of Industry 4.0 where technology is replacing many jobs and job functions. Students must prepare themselves and choose courses that will have job demand in the future, if not, you will become jobless. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is one of the courses that students can consider where it has a high job demand and salary not only in Malaysia but globally. Read on to find out more about what AI is about in order to make the right decision for your future.
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What is Artificial Intelligence?
In 1956, John McCarthy defined the term Artificial Intelligence (Ai) as: ‘The science and engineering of making intelligent machines.’
In addition, Artificial Intelligence can be understood as the development of computer systems that can perform tasks requiring human intelligence. Human intelligence such as decision making, detecting objects, solving complex problems and so on. Basically, Ai is when a machine performs an “intelligent” task.
- Artificial Intelligence (AI) means getting a computer to mimic human behavior in some way.
- Machine learning is a subset of AI, and it consists of the techniques that enable computers to figure things out from the data and deliver AI applications.
- Deep learning, meanwhile, is a subset of machine learning that enables computers to solve more complex problems.
What are the Types Of Learning In Artificial Intelligence?
- Artificial Narrow Intelligence
- Artificial General Intelligence
- Artificial Super Intelligence
These are the three stages through which AI can evolve, rather than the 3 types of Artificial Intelligence.
- Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)
- Also known as Weak AI, ANI is the stage of Artificial Intelligence involving machines that can perform only a narrowly defined set of specific tasks. At this stage, the machine does not possess any thinking ability, it just performs a set of pre-defined functions.
- Examples of Weak AI include Siri, Alexa, Self-driving cars, Alpha-Go, Sophia the humanoid and so on. Almost all the AI-based systems built till this date fall under the category of Weak AI.
- Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)
- Also known as Strong AI, AGI is the stage in the evolution of Artificial Intelligence wherein machines will possess the ability to think and make decisions just like us humans.
- There are currently no existing examples of Strong AI, however, it is believed that we will soon be able to create machines that are as smart as humans.
- Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)
- Artificial Super Intelligence is the stage of Artificial Intelligence when the capability of computers will surpass human beings. ASI is currently a hypothetical situation as depicted in movies and science fiction books, where machines have taken over the world.
Further Definitions of the Types of Artificial Intelligence (AI)
When explaining the different types of Artificial Intelligence systems, we can categorize them based on their functionalities. Based on the functionality of AI-based systems, these are the following types:
- Reactive Machines AI
- Limited Memory AI
- Theory Of Mind AI
- Self-aware AI
Reactive Machine AI
This type of AI includes machines that operate solely based on the present data, taking into account only the current situation. Reactive AI machines cannot form inferences from the data to evaluate their future actions. They can perform a narrowed range of pre-defined tasks.
An example of Reactive AI is the famous IBM Chess program that beat the world champion, Garry Kasparov.
Limited Memory AI
Like the name suggests Limited Memory AI, can make informed and improved decisions by studying the past data from its memory. Such an AI has a short-lived or a temporary memory that can be used to store past experiences and hence evaluate future actions.
Self-driving cars are Limited Memory AI, that uses the data collected in the recent past to make immediate decisions. For example, self-driving cars use sensors to identify civilians crossing the road, steep roads, traffic signals and so on to make better driving decisions. This helps to prevent any future accidents.
Theory Of Mind AI
The Theory Of Mind AI is a more advanced type of Artificial Intelligence. This category of machines is speculated to play a major role in psychology. This type of AI will focus mainly on emotional intelligence so that human believes and thoughts can be better comprehended.
The Theory of Mind AI has not yet been fully developed but rigorous research is happening in this area.
Let’s just pray that we don’t reach the state of AI, where machines have their own consciousness and become self-aware. This type of AI is a little far fetched given the present circumstances. However, in the future, achieving a stage of superintelligence might be possible.
What are the Different Branches Of Artificial Intelligence?
Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be roughly divided into symbolic or rules-based computing—typical ‘if-then’ statements—and machine learning, where AI is programmed with an algorithm that can modify itself as it gains new information.
There are different ways machine learning can be employed: deep learning by using artificial neural networks, reward-based learning, and learning based on statistical principles. Many AI programs are used for analyzing and processing images or speech or extracting information from them. Deep learning is often used for making predictions, like medical diagnoses or possible credit card fraud.
Artificial Intelligence can be used to solve real-world problems by implementing the following processes/ techniques:
- Machine Learning
- Deep Learning
- Natural Language Processing
- Expert Systems
- Fuzzy Logic
A subset of AI called Machine Learning is also taking AI to the next level. Machine Learning provides systems or machines the ability to learn and improve without being explicitly programmed. It is a computer-based learning achieved by following an algorithm (a set of instructions or rules) to maximize the chance of a prediction being correct.
In other words, the capability of machines to learn for themselves including the ability to analyze extensive volumes of data to identify patterns and predict outcomes without the need for human intervention.
Any program that improves its performance based on new inputs is an example of machine learning. It may involve artificial neural networks, but doesn’t have to.
Machine Learning is the science of getting machines to interpret, process and analyze data in order to solve real-world problems.
Under Machine Learning there are three categories:
- Supervised Learning
- Unsupervised Learning
- Reinforcement Learning
Deep Learning is the process of implementing Neural Networks on high dimensional data to gain insights and form solutions. Deep Learning is an advanced field of Machine Learning that can be used to solve more advanced problems.
A type of machine learning that uses ‘deep’ neural networks. The word ‘deep’ refers to the many layers in the neural network. Deep learning is how most of today’s artificial intelligence programs operate.
Deep Learning is the logic behind the face verification algorithm on Facebook, self-driving cars, virtual assistants like Siri, Alexa and so on.
Natural Language Processing
Natural Language Processing (NLP) refers to the science of drawing insights from natural human language in order to communicate with machines and grow businesses.
Twitter uses NLP to filter out terroristic language in their tweets, Amazon uses NLP to understand customer reviews and improve user experience.
Robotics is a branch of Artificial Intelligence which focuses on different branches and application of robots. AI Robots are artificial agents acting in a real-world environment to produce results by taking accountable actions.
Sophia the humanoid is a good example of AI in robotics.
Fuzzy logic is a computing approach based on the principles of “degrees of truth” instead of the usual modern computer logic i.e. boolean in nature.
Fuzzy logic is used in the medical fields to solve complex problems that involve decision making. They are also used in automatic gearboxes, vehicle environment control and so on.
An expert system is an AI-based computer system that learns and reciprocates the decision-making ability of a human expert.
Expert systems use if-then logical notations to solve complex problems. It does not rely on conventional procedural programming. Expert systems are mainly used in information management, medical facilities, loan analysis, virus detection and so on.
Where to Study Artificial Intelligence in Malaysia?
To get in-depth knowledge of Artificial Intelligence (Ai), you can enroll for the degree programme at top ranked private universities such as:
- University of Nottingham Malaysia
- Asia Pacific University (APU)
- Multimedia University (MMU) Melaka
- First City University College
What are the Advantages of Studying Artificial Intelligence (AI) at a Top Private University in Malaysia?
There are many advantages of studying in top private universities in Malaysia for the artificial intelligence course, starting from getting a good and stable life ahead to working in the best of the environments. Students will also get to learn from the best lecturers.Because of the high entry requirements for top universities, your course mates will be just as brilliant as you are having the same like mindedness to achieve success in your academics as well as future career. Group work will be easier as they will all be working hard to achieve the same goals.
The top notch education that you receive will ensure you have the knowledge and skills to obtain a high paying job and achieve financial stability quickly. In addition, your exposure and experience will give you insight to venture into creating new businesses or career pathways. Therefore, don’t make the mistake of choosing the cheapest university for your education, choose the best university.
Who Should Study Artificial Intelligence (Ai)?
Are you an analytical thinker who enjoys working on intelligent computer systems? Would you like to know more about topics such as data mining, machine learning and information retrieval?
If this is who you are, then the degree in Artificial Intelligence is the right choice for you. You will learn how to use and develop computer systems that can learn from experience, recognise patterns in large amounts of data and reason strategically in complex decision-making situations.
What will you Study in a Degree in Artificial Intelligence in Malaysia?
Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology is increasing its presence in our everyday lives and will change the way we live. Ai has uses in a variety of industries from gaming, media, to finance, as well as in the state-of-the-art research fields from robotics, medical diagnosis, and quantum science. In an Ai degree programme students will learn the basics and applications of AI, including: machine learning, probabilistic reasoning, robotics, computer vision, and natural language processing.
Most artificial intelligence degree programs will cover subjects such as artificial life, robotics, software engineering, computer programming, and machine learning. Students will also be able to choose some modules of their own interest from the electives. It will vary depending on which university you are applying to but generally you can choose from subjects such as systems programming, mobile interfaces, networking systems, data mining and security systems.
Below is a Sample of Subjects in the Artificial Intelligence (Ai) Degree Programme at Top Private Universities in Malaysia
- Computer Fundamentals
- Databases and Interfaces
- Fundamentals of Artificial Intelligence
- Mathematics for Computer Scientists
- Programming and Algorithms
- Programming Paradigms
- Software Engineering
- Systems and Architecture
- Algorithms Correctness and Efficiency
- Artificial Intelligence Methods
- Language and Computation
- Operating Systems and Concurrency
- Software Maintenance
- C++ Programming
- Introduction to Human Computer Interaction
- Introduction to Image Processing
- Autonomous Robotic Systems
- Computer Vision
- Designing Intelligent Agents
- Individual Dissertation
- Knowledge Representation and Reasoning
- Machine Learning
- Mathematical Techniques
- Computer Programming
- Database Systems
- Operating Systems
- Discrete Mathematics and Probability
- Computer Architecture and Organisation
- Data Communications and Networking
- Object Oriented Programming
- System Analysis and Design
- Technopreneur Venture
- Human Computer Interaction
- Computer Graphics
- Software Engineering Fundamentals
- Computational Science
- Pattern Recognition
- Computational Intelligence
- Agent Technology
- Expert Systems
- Computer Vision
- Natural Language Processing
- Algorithm Design and Analysis
- Semantic Web Technology